UTRON Kinetics
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Targeted Product Applications for Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC)

  • High-density near net shape parts for the defense industry
  • Refractory and Ceramic Composites for Hot Propulsion Components
  • X-ray anodes and targets
  • High-energy optical beam mirrors and heat sinks
  • Thermo-electric parts
  • Bearings and gears for helicopters
  • High performance magnets
  • High temperature valves, propulsion parts and valve seats
  • Refractory composite warheads, projectiles and ammunitions
  • Plasma-facing components in fusion reactors
  • Radio Frequency (RF) microwave parts in modern particle accelerators
  • Wear-resistant and high-temperature Thermal Protection System (TPS) applications


Commonly Used Materials

  • Rhenium
  • Rhenium / Molybdenum
  • Rhenium / Tungsten
  • Tungsten
  • Molybdenum
  • Niobium
  • Copper
  • Ceramic materials - SiC, Boron Carbide, Tantalum Carbide
  • Stainless steels
  • Low alloy steels
  • Ancorsteel 85HP
  • FLN-4405 steel
  • Copper / Stainless materials
  • Permanent Magnet materials
  • Lightweight alloys
  • Metal and Ceramic composites


The CDC Load Cycle is Tailored with Chemistry

Initially, fill gas creates pre-load, pushing the piston or ram down, pre-compressing and removing entrapped air from the powder. Then, an ignition stimulus is applied causing combustion and rapid pressure rise that further compresses the metal powder to its final net or near net shape. CDC technology allows parts to be compacted up to 150 tons per square inch without tool failure; gentle, continuous and unique rapid loading cycle is partly responsible. The tool steels are typically of industry standard and the CDC process typically uses no admixed lubricants or additives in the powder when the powder is compacted.

The CDC Load Cycle is tailored with chemistry

Applied Load

As Pressed / After sintering

Not All Materials Respond the Same

Not all materials respond to densification at higher CDC pressures in the same way. The graph, below, represents select materials that have been CDC compacted up to 150 tons per square inch. To date, several materials tested have benefited from a higher tonnage per square inch. Spherical powders typically do not compact well; however, higher densities have been achieved when compacting advanced stainless steel.

Applied Load vs. Diversity

Fl-4400 - Prealloyed low-alloy steel, F-0000 - High compressibility atomized Fe
FLN2 4404 - Prealloyed low-alloy steel w 2% elemental Ni, 737SH - Sinter hardening steel, 316 L – Prealloyed low carbon SS, W – Tungsten, Praxair AI-1061F


Microstructures of CDC Materials


Lightweight vehicle armor made from Silicon Carbide Ceramic powder compacted by CDC press. V50 ballistic testing demonstrated a 50% improvement in stopping power.

Light weight ceramic vehicle armor aAfter V50 testing demonstrated 50% improvement in stopping power


Simple to Complex Geometries


X-ray Tube with UTRON Kinetics’ Refractory Target

  • Testing at 70kV indicated leak resistance and comparable x-ray tube currents similar to wrought materials
  •  Ideal for dental x-ray equipment

X-ray Tube with UTRON’s Refractory Target


Sintered Rhenium-based Alloy Ring Samples

  • Pressed with the CDC technology
  • Demonstrates the ability of the CDC process to press hollow geometry parts

Sintered Re-Alloy Ring Samples